|GLOSSARY OF TERMS
(Work in progress)
I sought out
contemporary definitions and descriptions of the various textile and
clothing terms encountered in the fashion plates posted on this
website. However, the meanings of various terms may differ
because of country or company of origin and may have changed with
industry changes over time. If there are any terms for
which you have more complete descriptions, I would be grateful for
The sources of these
descriptions are listed in the Bibliography below and are organized by
the ‘nickname’ used in the text.
Bouillonné – In small puffings.
Beadle’s 1860; Narrow shirrings of chiffon that edge wide
ruffles or plaitings of the same or other materials.
- A light boot whose
form derives from the cothurna and the caliga; until the
16th century the brodequin was a light shoe worn inside
boots and houseaux: it was also an instep-strap stocking which young
men wore inside boots for weapon practice. Only in the 18th
century is the brodequin found as a sort of boot. In the 19th
century it was the footwear of elegant ladies, with a fine linen or
silk leg, and was worn even for dancing. It was then by (ironic)
analogy that the name was given to the short-legged army boots then in
use. Liturgical brodequins, which were used for the consecration of
bishops or the coronation of monarchs, were more like richly
ornamented silk or velvet stockings.
Canezou – woman’s
jacket often of lace, usually sleeveless.
-Small guimp with or without sleeves; its
main feature was that it was tucked into the belt, where it stopped.
Its greatest vogue was during the Romantic period, but it was worn
from 1799 until about 1870. François
Capote – From the very
late 18th century on, a woman’s head-dress fitted closely
round the chignon, with a wide flaring brim framing the face. The
capote was worn until the end of the 19th century, with
changes in detail, but the basic shape remained unaltered.
- Close hat, toque or cap.
Cannelé – A channel
effect in weaving giving lengthwise stripes in raised or lowered
effect on the goods in small patterns.
Castor 1. colour:
light, grayish-brown shade with yellow cast.
Beaver hat; hat made of beaver or other
silky fur or fabric; hence, silk hat. Latin word meaning beaver.
Heavy, all-wool fabric, similar to
broadcloth, but lighter in weight. Used for coats.
Soft leather: soft, suede-finished kid or
goatskin. Used for gloves. Picken
The fur of the Castor beaver is used in the
manufacture of fur hats. Also, a heavy quality of broadcloth used for
making overcoats is sometimes termed castor.
Beaver – A thick woolen
cloth weave similar to doeskin. The wrong side is finished with a
soft, thick nap. In hats on Plaques, a long nap fur thrown on bodies
of wool and felt fur felt. Ben-Yusuf
Douillette – A
Directoire coat dress for domestic wear. Interlined with long sleeves
and a high neck in the Empire period. Designed for outdoor wear. The
long sleeves are sectioned and puffed.
Drap – French for
-The French equivalent for the
English word “cloth” or “stuff,” and generally applied to fabrics of
wool or silk. Callaway
-French term for woollen
- Cloth – woolens
including broad and narrow cloths, kerseymeres, pelisse and habit
cloths, among others. Perkins, p. 49-50,
Fichu - draped scarf
or shawl worn about shoulders and tied in knot at breast, with ends
hanging down loosely. Also, ruffly draping on bosom of blouse or
dress. Word, meaning negligee or careless, first used to describe
breaking away from stiff collar of the past.
Small black lace scarf which women knotted
around their necks so that the points fell on the chest. Mentioned
from 1779 on, but its greatest vogue coincided with the beginning of
the French Restoration. The term came from the long leather loop
which hung from horses’ crops in the Middle Ages to aid mounting.
Gaze - Gauze – A very
thin, light, transparent linen fabric, woven plain. It is similar to
the lawn, but more sheer.
- A light, open fabric of
cotton or silk, used for veils. The warp threads are twisted in the
operation of weaving, thus giving the fabric the appearance of lace.
Scissors & Yardstick 1872
-Gauze – A thin, light,
transparent fabric woven in a crossed-warp technique (Emery, p. 189).
By extension, any sheer, open fabric. Silk Gauze was woven at
Spitalfields until the 1760s when Paisley “became the center of a
flourishing gauze manufacture” (Beck).
The van Varick inventory of 1695/96 lists “2 chinmie cloths
of Crimson gaze; 6 window curtaines ditto- ₤6:10:0.” The Norton
Papers of Virginia in 1768 list “6 yrds handsome flower’d Gauze Ell
wide” (p. 72); and in 1772 “12 yards of neat sprigged Gause undressed,
4 yards of a sort” (p. 218). “Plain, striped and flowered silk gauze”
were offered for sale by George Bartram (Pennsylvania Chronicle,
September 7, 1767). Montgomery
- light-weight and sheer
fabric woven in the 18th century of silk; generally of
plain weave; they can be ornamented with designs, figures or brochees…
- A very fine and peculiar
weave of the bunting order. A thin voile.
Gauze originated in Gaza, and
was used as a veil or netting. The gauze weave is characterized by
warps that are shifted out of parallel positions and then back again.
Each one of the positions is held in place by a weft thread. Gauze
can be open and lacey, or of very tight weave construction. Today
gauze is created in silk, cotton, rayon and manufactured fibers.
Gauze fabrics should not be confused with those produced by the LENO
WEAVE, which is also a loose, open weave. The term is sometimes used
erroneously in referring to any delicate, sheer fabric.
Gauze flannel – a very
thin porous article, from which circumstance it derives its name; it
is used for the same purpose as the foregoing […beneficial to
rheumatic and elderly persons, as an article of clothing to be worn
next their skin…], but only used by those who cannot bear one of the
closer texture. Perkins. 1845
Common Gauze – [silk]
Gauze is an article too well known to need description, except as to
the various sorts. Common gauze is to be had plain, striped, and
figured. The figure may be formed with silk, or of Magnesia; when it
is formed of this well-known drug, the figure is traced on the gauze
with a strong gum, and the magnesia laid on wet; when dry it is
perfectly firm. The length of its article varies from 24 to 26 yards;
its width 4/4. Perkins 1845
Lisse Gauze – [silk] is
a plain gauze of a superior quality, of the same widths as the above;
it is to be had of all colours, and its lengths are from 14 to 20 yars.
Perkins 1845 other terms related:
crape lisse, gossamer
Cotton Gauze – see Leno
Gauze [linen] – A very
thin, light, transparent linen fabric, woven plain. It is similar to
the lawn, but more sheer. Single fold. Width, 25-30 inches.
Scissors & Yardstick
Gauze [flannel] – A
fine, slight, transparent flannel, sometimes all wool, usually a warp
of tram silk is used. The woof is of a very fine wool. It is used
principally for infants, and for summer wear. Single fold. Width,
3-4. Scissors & Yardstick
Gauze [veil goods] A
light open fabric of cotton or silk, used for veils. The warp threads
are twisted in the operation of weaving, thus giving the fabric the
appearance of lace. It is made both white and in colors. Single
fold. With, about 22 inches. Scissors
& Yardstick 1872
Gros d’été – A dress
material woven with two warps at different tensions, the slack warp
forms a terry effect. Mercury
Gros Grain – A ribbed
silk fabric or ribbon with heavy thread running crosswise.
Grosgrain – Thought ot
have originated rugin the Middle Ages, grosgrain is characterized by
crosswise, or crossgrain, ribs. It is executed in a PLAIN WEAVE that
employs larger threads in the weft than the warp. It is a tightly
woven textile that bears a resemblance to FAILLE, but the ribs are
much larger due to the larger size of the weft threads. The textile
is available in both silk and manufactured fibers and occasionally
cotton. Judith Jerde
Gros de Naples –
literally “thick or stout of Naples;” and by which we understand it to
be a silk of that description. The article we know in trade by this
name is a plain stout silk; it is the staple of silks; but of which
there are of course, many qualities, and in all colours; lengths
various, to 100 yards. Perkins 1845
- A well-woven plain weave
silk fabric, made from good organzine silk. Both warp and weft are
doubled yarns with more threads per inch in the warp than weft.
- Another of the numerous gros
family with the cross-ribbed weave of the demi-grosgrain, but not as
smooth or brilliant as taffetas lustré.
French Millinery Terms 1939
- A stout, plain-woven silk
dress fabric, woven of organzine silk, in the weaving of which great
care and labor is bestowed, hence one of the most durable of silk
materials. Coles 1892
-Gros de Naples (de Rhine, &
de Tours) Silk textiles of plain weave with a corded effect. Havard
calls them Taffetas à gros grain, uni, plus épis que l’ordinaire.
Perkins describes gros de Naples as “a plain stout silk; it is the
staple of silks; but of which there are, of course, many qualities,
and in all colours.” “The usual name for a cannelé [ribbed fabric]
that has only two picks of weft moving together” (Burnham, p. 53)…
Among the Richelieu Papers dating from the 1730s are two swatches of
gros de Naples made in Holland and two of gros de Tours woven in
Genoa, one of which is plain and the other with warp faced satin
flowers on a gros de Tours ground. … The Warner Collection includes
circa 1760 swatches of striped and checked gros de Tours and gros de
-Gros de Naples – The
term “Gros” being the French of thick, the name signifies a thick
Napes silk. It is a material somewhat similar to lutestring, but less
stout, and made both plain and figured, in various qualities, and
coloured. It is much used for dresses, and is manufactured in this
country as a well as in France, whence it was formerly imported. The
chief seat of the manufacture in England is at Spialfields.
Caulfield & Saward 1887
Gros de Messines – A
variety of “Gros de Naples”, having a raised narrow pin-rib. It is 18
inches in width. Caulfield & Saward 1887.
Gros d’Orient –
Gros des Indes.
A French name for a silk textile, produced by the use of different
shuttles with threads of various substances for the weft, by which
means a stripe is formed transversely across the web.
. Caulfield & Saward 1887
Lardner’s Cabinet Cyclopaedia of 1831, a material ”formed by using
different shuttles with threads of various substances for the shoot,
whereby a stripe is formed transversely to the length of the goods”
(p. 298) Montgomery
Gros des Indes: A silk with a
wide wale diagonal weave. French
Millinery Terms 1939
Gros de Londres: A
heavy silk woven in alternating coarse and fine ribs, sometimes in
ribs of two different colors.
French Millinery Terms 1939
Gros de Suez
– A description of silk stuff employed by milliners for lining
bonnets. It is slight in substance, of narrow width, has a very small
rib, and is known also as “Turquoise Silk.” Caulfield
& Saward 1887
Gros de Tours – Similar
to taffeta; two or more pickings being inserted in same shed instead
of one, making fine ribbed surface.
Gros de Tours :
Resembling taffetas, the difference being that, instead of one, two or
more picks are inserted in the same shed or opening of the warp
threads, forming a fine ribbed surface. A sublimated grosgrain.
French Millinery Terms 1939
Gros de Zoitz – A
heavy, black dress fabric, having a double cotton warp and worsted
woof. A fine cord extends lengthwise of the fabric, on both face and
back, formed by the double warp, which is almost entirely covered by
the wool woof, thus giving it the appearance of being all wool.
Double fold. Width, 27 to 30 inches.
Scissors & Yardstick 1872
Guimpe – A front and
back yoke to be worn with a low-cut dress, with or without sleeves.
Illusion – A thin and
very transparent tulle. Ben-Yusuf 1909
-Illusion is a type of very
fine net. It is executed by hand or machine using a knotting
technique that creates a hexagonal pattern. It can be made of cotton,
silk or manufactured fiber. Judith Jerde
Leno Weave – Textiles
created in the leno weave have a lace-like appearance because of their
lightweight, open structure. It is thought that this weave originated
near Reims, France, a linen textile center. Today it is generally
executed in COTTON or MANUFACTURED FIBERS.
In the leno weave
the warp yarns are arranged in pairs. The weft is shot straight
across the fabric, but the threads are locked in place by twisting to
the left and to the right of the warp threads by a device called the
doup harness. (Leno is also referred to as a doup weave.) A
well-known example of the leno weave is MARQUISETTE.
Leno - is made of the
same material as muslin, it is much clearer than a book-muslin, and
may with propriety be called cotton gauze. It may be had in the same
widths as muslins but is not now much in demand. It is in pieces of
10 yards. Perkins 1845
Maline – A very fine silk net
of gauze-like texture. Ben-Yusuf 1909
-Maline originated in Malines,
Belgium. It is a very soft mesh NET with a hexagonal construction.
Maline is available in silk on the market today but not in the great
quantity that nets of manufactured fiber and cotton are found.
Merinos – 1. fine wool
of merino sheep
Fine, soft dress fabric, resembling
cashmere; originally made of the wool or merino sheep.
Fine wool yarn for knit goods; or the knit
fabric itself, used for hosiery and underwear.
French m. Fine woolen fabric made from wool
of French breed of merino sheep.
-Merinos The merino sheep
gives the finest of all wools up to 80’s counts, which is very soft
and white. The original merino fabric was woven from this wool…Merino
cloth was first produced in 1804 at Rheims and known as Shale.
-Often called French merino,
from the fact of its having first been made in France, is an all wool
dress fabric, having a broken twill upon both sides. In the finest
material, both sides are about equally finished. This is probably the
most durable of any of the dress fabrics.
Scissors & Yardstick 1872
- A woolen dress fabric, first
made at Bradford, England, in 1826, of pure Merino wool, at which time
it was one of the most expensive varieties manufactured. In
appearance it is a thin, light “woolen” material, twilled on both
sides, back and face alike. Merino is also a term applied to a variety
of medium-weight, soft-finished knitted underwear, formerly made of
merino wool, but now of cotton and wool mixed.
Mousseline – light
weight, sheer, cotton fabric
- Soft, fine, French muslin.
- A general term for very fine
clear fabrics finer than muslins made of silk wool or cotton.
- fabric of cotton thread,
very light weight. [its name would correspond to the fact that it is
not plain and presente small inegalites, bloatings which resemble has
of foam] Richelieu
-Mousseline originated in
France in 1826 and is the French word for muslin. The textile bears
little resemblance to muslin, however. It is a very fine sheer
textile made of silk, cotton, wool or manufactured fibers. It is
executed in a plain weave.
There are many
textiles in the Mousseline family, named according to the fiber types
that are employed, i.e., Mousseline de laine (wool), mousseline de
soie (silk), etc. The weights, sizings, finishes and qualities of the
mousselines are wide and varied. Judith
Printed Muslin. A fine, sheer
cotton fabric, printed in colors. It is often called “French
Muslin.” A superior article is now made, called “Organdy Muslin.”
Muslins were first made at Paisley, Scotland. Single fold. Width,
about 7-8. Scissors & Yardstick 1872
Muslin. A fine, thin cotton
fabric, woven plain, bearing a fine, soft, and almost invisible downy
nap upon its surface.Muslins are
of many varieties, the best of which are made at Bengal. The name
“muslin” is derived from Moussel, in Turkey, where it was first
manufactured. Book Muslin; also called India Book, form the
fact that it was first made in India; is the most sheer of any of the
muslins, except Organdy. It is very thin and light, and has a bluish
tint. Single fold. Doubled in three parts, like print, then doubled
crossways in three parts, making a piece about one foot square.
Width, 7-8. Organdy Muslin; A coarse, sheer cotton fabric,
woven plain. It is very open in texture, almost as much so as
Tarlatane. It is ht most sheer of any of the muslins. Single fold.
Doubled in three parts. Width, 7-8 to 4-4. Pina muslin. A very fine
fabric made of the fibre of the pineapple tree. The fibre is spun
like flax, and produces a costly texture, equal to the finest muslins
of Bengal. Single fold. Width, 3-4. Swiss Muslin. A very
light, fine muslin, a little heavier than the “Book.” It is usually
plain, but sometimes shirred, tucked, and figured. Single fold.
Doubled and folded in three parts, like print. Width, 4-4.
Mull-Mull. A variety of muslin, a little finer and closer than the
“Swiss,” but not quite as close or heavy as nainsook. It is a medium
between the two. Width and fold same as that of “ Swiss.”
Nainsook. A variety of muslin, heavier and more closely woven
than the other muslins. It is similar to Jones cambric, but not as
heavy. It is woven plain, also with checks, stripes, etc. The plain
is doubled and folded like the “Book.” The checked, striped, etc., is
single fold; doubled and folded in three parts.
Scissor & Yardstick 1872
Pelerine - Tippet or
cape, usually waist-length in back, with long, pointed ends in front.
Popular in England and colonial America.
Pèlerine – Name given in the
18th century to a short cape covering the shoulders,
similar to those worn by Watteau’s ‘Pilgrims’(Pèlerins and Pèlerines).
The word has kept the original meaning, though it is sometimes applied
to longer garments. François Boucher
-A small mantle, rounded like
a cape. Guide to Dressmaking 1870s
- A small cape. A term now
specially applied to a form of ladies’ neckwear.
Ben Yusuf 1909
Perkale – A
French term for cambric muslin (1818)
Cunnington p. 434
Percale – A
super quality cambric, generally bleached, printed and finished
without gloss. The best qualities are made in France.
- A fine cotton fabric of firm
texture usually printed in stripes and figures. It was originally
made in France, and is usually called “French Percale”. It is now
largely manufactured in the United States. Single fold. Width, about 1
yard. Scissors & Yardstick 1872.
- [A French term signifying
cambric muslin, or cotton cambric, as distinguished from linen
cambric.] A kind of cambric very closely and firmly woven, with a
round thread, and containing more dressing than ordinary muslin, but
without the glossy finish of cambric; it is printed in fancy patterns
on white and colored grounds. Percale was introduced into the United
States in 1865. Cole’s 1892
- (perkale) A fine cotton
cloth originally from India where it was sold white or dyed blue. …
Percale was manufactured in England in 1670 and in France in 1789
(Caulfield and Saward). Ackermann comments on the material in 1816:
“Perkale, as they call cambric muslin, is now almost the only thing
worn in the morning costume: you must not, however, fancy that this
proceeds from a wish to encourage English manufacture, but partly from
a love for novelty, and partly because it is less expensive than
cambric, and equally fashionable” (Repository, 2d ser., 1, no.
5[May 1816’: 306). Printed percales were used for shirting.
Percale – A kind of cambric
closely and firmly woven, with more dressing than ordinary muslin,
printed or plain. Ben-Yusuf 1909
-Percale come from the Persian
word pargalah. Originally used to describe a cotton textile with an
even higher thread count than the percales we know today, percale is
now executed in a PLAIN WEAVE with carded yarn, and contains 180 to
200 threads per inch. The finest percales are made of combed fiber.
Percale is an extremely important textile, used not only in the making
of garments but in the production of household textiles such as
sheeting. Today, percale comes in a wide variety of colors as well as
prints. Judith Jerde
Pluche – (peluche)
plush. Rich fabric of various fibers, in pile weave, with longer
pile than velvet; and coarse back made of cotton, silk, wool, etc.
used for coats, capes, neckpieces, muffs.
- This is a fabric with a cut
pile of silk warp and cotton back. The pile is longer than velvet
pile and less densely woven. It is used for rugs, drapery, curtains,
and upholstery. Mohair yarn is excellent for the pile of plush
because when the pile is cut the fibres are erect and straight.
-Peluché – shabby, tough,
plush-like. French Millinery Terms
-A term derived from French
peluch[sic], which in turn is derived from Latin pilus, hair, from the
fact that when plush was first manufactured it was made with a worsted
foundation and a pile of goat’s hair or mohair. The use and
manufacture of plush in Europe dates from the sixteenth century,
though it is highly probable that a fabric similar in appearance has
been woven in China from time immemorial. Plush may be roughly
described as long napped velvet, and any kind of fiber may be used in
its manufacture, the distinction from velvet being found in the longer
and less dense pile upon the surface of plush…The silk plush now so
extensively used for dress and millinery purposes is made on a cotton
foundation, the ground-warp being frequently dyed of the same color as
the silk pile-warp. Silk plush having a long and a less dense pile
than velvet, the pile admits of being brushed from side to side much
easier, thus reflecting the rays of light to a better advantage, and
producing a watered or changeable effect. One form of plush is that
which has taken the place of the napped beaver-felt in the dress-hats
of gentlemen, which is consequently known as hatter’s plush. This
variety is all produced in Lyons, France….
-Wool velvet. A kind of stuff
with a velvet nap or shag on one side “composed of a weft of a single
woolen thread, and a double warp, the one wool, of two threads
twisted, the other goats-hair. Some plushes are made entirely of
worsted and others composed wholly of hair” (Chambers). Plush was
made in all colors and was used for breeches, waistcoats, and winter
jackets (Savary des Bruslons). It was frequently used for furnishing
and occasionally for altar frontals and pulpit cloths.
In Boston in 1741 a runaway
servant wore “a pair of orange colored plush breeches” (Dow, Every
Day Life, p. 66). “Green, glue and red Hair Plush” were
advertised in the Providence Gazette on February 21, 1789.
A specialty of
France, plush was woven in that country beginning in the late
seventeenth century. Swatches of plush characteristic of Amiens
manufacturers of about 1762 are preserved in the Archives de la Somme
(Havard). … Silk plush had a longer pile than silk velvet. ….
- Plush is a term taken from
the French word peluche, which means shaggy. The textile is
constructed with a PLAIN WEAVE, similar to VELVET, but he pile is much
longer and is usually less dense. Plush is often created using a
combination of fibers, which may include MOHAIR, WOOL and MANUFACTURED
FIBERS. Plush is often multicolored, and is also found in a variety
of patterns. Judith Jerde
Prunelle - prunella –
A kind of lasting of which clergymen’s gowns were once made, but now
only used for the uppers of women’s cloth shoes. The name is supposed
to have been derived from its former color, that of prunelle,
French for plum. – Cole’s 1892
- 1. Strong, smooth, worsted
dress fabric in twill or satin weave; used for dresses, skirts. 2.
Woolen or mixed fabric with smooth surface, popular in 18th
and 19th centuries. Used for scholastic and clerical
robes, dresses. Heavy grade formerly used for shoe uppers.
-Prunelle – A very fine French
wool dress fabric, made with hard sp8un two-fold warp and three- or
five-fold silk weft. Usually dyed black.
A French serge dress
fabric of the early 19th century made in a 12-shaft twill
Prunella – A light-weight
Yorkshire woollen cloth, generally with the prunelle twill weave; used
for dress purposes. The heavy types are double cloths with a fine
face and coarse back. Mercury
- One of the worsted textiles
made at Norwich. In 1727 James Scottowe advertised in the Norwich
Gazette that he had “neat woven shims flowered in the loom with silk
up or worstead on a white prunel at reasonable rates” … Modern
definitions suggest that it was a 2/1 warp faced twill; some was made
with cotton filling in a satin weave. It resembled lasting.
Three-quarter or full-length dress or coat, open from neck to hem,
usually belted at the waistline. Worn over a slip or dress.
- Woman’s long, fitted coat, cut princess style, worn open in front to
show dress underneath. Sometimes cut away in front. Originally made
with several capes and trimmed with large buttons. French word
developed from English words, riding coat.
- Garment adapted for women
about 1785; a lighter version of the male redingote, whose cut and
sometimes collars it borrowed. But it remained a gown, open a
waistcoat and skirt, and not a surtout. However, under the Empire it
appeared as an overcoat, then reappeared as a gown during the
Restoration and romantic period. Until the Second Empire it was
essentially a gown buttoning all the way down the front. Its fashion
ended under the Second Empire; from 1874 it reappeared as a coat,
fairly severe in cut. Francois Boucher.
- A long coat.
Revers – The
turned-back edge of a coat, waistcoat, or bodice.
revers – Turned back. The
facing of a dress, or a cuff turned back over the sleeve.
Saxifrages – type of
Tulle – tulle
– Very fine net fabric made from silk yarns, plain weave. First made
in France and used for veils and light dresses. They are often
ornamented by using a jacquard to make small sprigs and dots. First
made by machinery in 1768 at Nottingham. In 1834 the first
machine-made figured tulles (point d’esprit) were produced. Also
called Malines lace. Mercury1945
Tulle, or silk illusion
– A very thin, transparent meshed fabric of fine white, raw silk. It
is used principally for bridal veils, etc. In reality, it is a kind
of lace, the meshes of which are round, and of uniform size. It is a
very delicate and expensive article.
Scissors and Yardstick 1872
-[Properly point de tulle,
a fine net, so called from the town of that name, capital of the
department of Correz, France.] Silk bobbinet; a plain, fine silk net,
used for women’s veils and bonnets, sometimes ornamented with dots
like blonde lace, but more commonly without pattern. Machinery for
the manufacture of tulle was invented about the year 1800, and was
copied after the bobbinet invention. At first it was termed tulle
simple et double; in 1825, tulle bobine grenadine; next it
was known as zephyr, and finally as illusion. The
Jacquard system has been very successfully adapted to the manufacture
of tulle. Blonde is a narrow tulle adapted for quillings.
- Silk bobbin net first
produced in France toward the end of the eighteenth century. Beck
gave the history of this material and the related zephyr, illusion,
and blonde nets. Montgomery
- Finest silk mesh net; plain
fine silk net. Ben-Yusuf 1909
-Tulle refers to a
machine-made fine cotton or manufactured net with a hexagonal mesh.
Prior to the 18th century, tulle was created by hand.
Tulle was first created by machine in Nottingham, England, in 1768;
however, it wasn’t until improvements had been made on the machine
many years later that he textile was produced in any quantity. The
first record of factory production of the fabric was in 1817 in Tulle,
France, from which the textile derives its name.
type of fabric
Voile – Very light open
plain weave dress fabrics. The best qualities of voile are made with
fine, very hard twisted two-fold combed and gassed cotton yarns.
- veil, veiling; veiled,
clouded; a fabric similar to the old-fashioned nun’s veiling, but made
with somewhat heavier yarns. Ben-Yusuf
- Voile is executed in a PLAIN
WEAVE and is loosely woven. A true voile is very lightweight and very
crisp. The yarns used in the creation of voile have a very hard twist
and are usually gassed (or singed) so that the fabric has a high
luster. Voile is most often made of cotton, but is also made of
RAYON, SILK and WORSTED. Today voiles are found in plain colors,
stripes and prints. Judith Jerde
Volant – flounce or
frill. Guide to Dressmaking 1870s
Beadles 1860 Pullan, Mrs. Marion M., Beadle’s Dime Guide to
Dress-making and Millinery: with a Complete French and English
Dictionary of Terms Employed in Those Arts, New York: Beadle and
Ben-Yusuf 1909 Ben-Yusuf, Mmme. Anna, Edwardian Hats: The
Art of Millinery (1909), enlarged and edited by R.L. Shep,
Mendocino: R. L. Shep, 1992
Callaway Carmichael, W. L., George E. Linton, Isaac Price,
Callaway Textile Dictionary, first edition, La Grange, Georgia:
Callaway Mills, 1947
Coles 1892 Cole, George S., A Complete Dictionary of Dry
Goods and History of Silk, Cotton, Linen, Wool and other Fibrous
Substances…, Revised Edition, Chicago: George S. Cole, 1892
Cunnington Cunnington, C. Willett, English Women’s Clothing
in the Nineteenth Century, London: Faber and Faber Ltd., 1956
Boucher Boucher, François, 20,000 Years of Fashion, The
History of Costume and Personal Adornment, New York: Harry N.
Abrams, Inc., 1966
French Millinery Terms 1939 Weil, Claire, editor, Glossary
of French Millinery Terms, Comprising Millinery Dictionary, Color
Dictionary, Fabric Dictionary, Silk Dictionary, Straw Dictionary, Lace
Dictionary, New York: Contemporary Modes, 1939
Guide to Dressmaking 1870s Guide to Dressmaking and Fancy
Work containing all and complete instructions in measuring, fitting,
cutting by measure, making up, and all the other details of
dressmaking. To which are added complete instructions for cutting and
Making Ladies’ Underclothing. First Published in the 1870s by J.
S. Robertson & Bros., Whitby, Ontario, this edition published by
Eileen Collard, Burlington, Ontario, 1977
Jerde Jerde, Judith, Encyclopedia of Textiles, Facts on
File, New York, 1992
Linton, George E., The Modern Textile and Apparel Dictionary,
Plainfield, New Jersey, Textile Book Service, 1973
Mercury The ”Mercury” Dictionary of Textile
Terms, Manchester: Textile Mercury Limited, n.d. c. 1945
Montgomery Montgomery, Florence M., Textiles in America
1650-1870, New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1983
Perkins 1845 Perkins, E. E., A Treatise on Haberdashery &
Hosiery…, London: Thomas Tegg, 1845
Picken Picken, Mary Brooks, The Fashion Dictionary, Fabric,
Sewing, and Apparel as Expressed in the Language of Fashion,
revised and enlarged, New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1973
Richelieu Weigert, Roger-Armand, Textiles en Europe sous
Louis XV, The most Beautiful Specimens in the Richelieu Collection,
Greenwich, Connecticut: New York Graphic Society , 1964
Scissors and Yardstick 1872 Brown, C. M., and C. L. Gates,
Scissors and Yardstick; or All About Dry Goods, Hartford,
Connecticut: C.M. Brown and F.W. Jaqua, 1872
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